If they find something interesting, and continue reading and searching, they will soon come to see that there are many new and old terms they could use in their search. The big computers that operate the search mechanisms simply handle strings of numbers in 'machine language'. Computers don't get annoyed about words which may sound 'wrong' in one place, while still being good in other places.
Presumably, social networking sites will increasingly program their computers to identify and block 'hate-language' that sometimes occurs in 'cyber-bullying'; and some governments already try to exclude discussion of current and historical events that are flashpoints in local community relations or between opposing national political groups; but these are human interventions - the computers don't get emotional as they follow the commands to process instructions.
Phrases such as 'disabled people' and 'people with disabilities' have both been used in this bibliography. There are millions of sensitive, intelligent and well-informed people who strongly prefer one of these terms, and further millions who prefer the other and several billion people who are indifferent to both, because they don't use English at all, and live quite satisfactory lives without it. One peace-seeking response might be to use neither term; yet that would merely lead to new terms being invented, which would be argued over by further millions.
Another response is to use both terms, and ask everyone to be calm, breathe deeply, exercise patience, enjoy the terms they like, tolerate the terms they don't like. We should understand that the English language, let loose across the world, has many variations and is beyond recapture or control. This bibliography is a small tool in a corner of the Internet. Skilful readers are warmly invited to make better tools, in any language of their choice. One can be reasonably confident that differences of English-language terminology are not a source of suffering for the vast majority of the Asian population, who do not think in English and are fully occupied with their own affairs.
Does 'disability' not cover things like 'deafness' or 'hearing impairment'? Why do 'mental disorder' and 'deafness' get in the title, but not 'blindness'? Originally a series of bibliographies, with which the present compiler M. Miles has been engaged since about , was titled "Social responses to disability Yet some 'deaf' or 'Deaf' people do not consider themselves to have a 'disability' - their claim is that they simply use a different kind of language, i. Sign Language. The use of capital 'D', i. The situation of people with various kinds of 'Mental Disorders' is also complicated.
It might be divided more clearly and described in several other ways and levels, e. People having such conditions may perceive their situation differently from the ways in which people who are blind or have a physical disability think about their own situation, or are responded to by the general public. After using 'Disabled or Deaf' in the title of several bibliographies, this compiler finally decided to add 'Mental Disorders' to the present one. It's not a term that I actually like. More often I've used "mental disabilities" in other work, but in the present title that would be confusing, so I settled for 'Mental Disorders', and will let readers work it out.
Several decades ago, 'mental illness' was not usually grouped together with 'disability'; but that has been changing, and people with mental illness or disorders are now more likely to be included within the 'disability' field, in many parts of the world. Among the various major religions or philosophies of the world, Buddhism is more often associated with exercises of the mind and the mental, cognitive or psychological processes. Some techniques of meditation, originating in Asian Buddhism or Hinduism through two or three thousand years, have recently been used in western therapeutic and psychiatric practice often without reference to any 'religious' content or origins.
It could be argued that 'mental disorder' is addressed or reflected on every second or third page of the collected teachings of the Buddha Gotama, with teaching about the achievement of a 'well-ordered' mind. For one reason and another, I decided to put some specific words in the title, and it came out as 'mental disorders'. In general, 'blind' and 'blindness' are strongly associated with 'disability', so they do not need to be mentioned separately. Buddhism is very often presented as speaking about 'suffering'; and this word in many languages is assumed, not unreasonably, to be widely understood across the world, in a broad way.
However, some 'modern' people having a disability would certainly wish to emphasize that they do not see themselves as 'suffering' from the impairment of sight or hearing, the crooked leg or backbone, slower speed of thought and speech, or whatever people imagine to be their 'disability'. If they think of themselves as 'suffering', it may be from the bias and stupidity of people making false assumptions about them, excluding them from everyday social life, offering help they do not need while failing to recognise the many abilities they have, and designing clothes, houses, streets, toilets, and public services that assume everyone exists in a narrow range of shapes and sizes and can easily walk, see, hear, climb steps while carrying bags, operate self-service machines standing upright in a noisy environment, etc.
Such a reconceptualisation of 'disability', allocating much of the 'fault' and 'blame' to the local community or larger society, may play an increasing part in how impairments and disabilities are understood in religions and philosophies of transcendence. The fact of 'suffering' continues, but the focus may change. For example, the old instruction not to place an obstacle in the path of blind people for the perverted pleasure of seeing them trip over it? See below, edited collection by TIWARI 'Suffering: Indian Perspectives' - though with the caution that most of the authors are Western scholars of Indian thought, rather than Indian scholars giving representative Indian perspectives.
Influences of Buddhism may reasonably be claimed to have reached as many as two billion people currently alive, mostly within Asia. This does not mean there are two billion 'Buddhists'; but probably two billion people are living in regions where there is a long history of Buddhist teaching and practice, which has some ongoing influence on the way most people think and behave. Those teachings are believed to originate with the Buddha Gotama Gautama, more often called Shakyamuni, or Tathagata, in some countries and a handful of his companions in North India during forty or more years in the sixth, fifth or fourth century BC.
Since then, the teachings have travelled a long way - mostly on foot - and have diversified beyond the grasp even of specialists. If the world's 'significantly disabled' people are spread unevenly across the globe with greater numbers in the countries with weaker economies and health services not balanced by the larger number of very old people, and much broader definitions in the post-industrial nations , at least half of all 'people with disability, deafness or mental disorders' may be living in Asia, amidst populations that are currently influenced either by Buddhist teaching or by religious thought in which karma and rebirth play a substantial role.
While officially there are ca. The past half century saw some slowly accelerating growth in a worldwide, mainly urban, 'Disabled People's Movement', and in a consciousness among disabled people that most of them do not have equal access to the benefits of 'development' or 'modernity', such as reliable supplies of food, water and electricity, housing, employment, health and education services, leisure facilities, and courts where legal rights may be claimed or enforced. A minority do have some 'special' provisions and public assistance, but even these benefits may disappear in times of economic crisis, or during months or years when flooding or other natural catastrophes occur, or during warfare or civil strife.
Also, religion has often been interpreted in ways that seemed to support the oppressors more than the oppressed, in issues concerning people with mental disorders, deafness or disability. Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Religious leaders, scholars and activists are beginning to provide, or are hoping to provide, a more thoughtful and positive response to the demands and rising expectations of the Disabled People's Movement, and to 'update their act'.
Some of them are trying to offer better physical access to places of worship, removing old barriers, obstructive doctrines and prejudicial language that seem to support a negative image of people with disabilities and reinforce adversely discriminatory practices. During this modernising process there have been some happy occasions with a feeling that positive changes are happening, but also some sharp confrontations and unwelcome discoveries. Disabled people have pointed out that some revered religious texts actively support negative discrimination.
When the modern spotlight focuses on such material, usually some scholars get busy to try to show that in the original context the 'guilty' texts were not as bad as they now look, or were late editorial amendments which can now be weeded out, or they probably meant something completely different Other scholars may then dismiss these exculpatory efforts as 'lame excuses'.
Wheelchair riders have pointed out that 'Inclusion' should mean more than putting a ramp at the back entrance to the temple, church or mosque so that they can find their way into the building between the garbage bins, through the old storeroom, along an unlighted corridor, past the toilets, finally reaching a door into the main hall, which has been locked on seven out of the past ten occasions when they got that far. People with intellectual impairment and behavioural differences have found that Inclusion does not necessarily mean that everyone will be happy if they wander about singing their favourite line from a religious song during the more solemn parts of the rituals of worship.
People who are deaf, or have significantly impaired hearing, have drawn attention to the fact that there are many ways of communicating information that do not rely on audible words; and most of these are useful both to deaf people and to everyone else. There's a long way to go and not just round to the back of the building.
Also, confusingly, the warmly advocated preferences of some people with disabilities may be the opposite of what some other disabled people would prefer. The communities using mosques, temples, churches, gurdwaras, meditation halls and other buildings are learning not only to change some of the external environment and the interpretation of old texts, but also to make more room in their hearts and minds, to accommodate people with various kinds of difference, marginality, difficulty, disorder, or vulnerability.
It has been discovered that many of those disabled people have human gifts, wisdom, benefit or blessing to offer to the communities as well as some human failings and curses. The process of updating is being noticed and documented, sometimes by young disabled activists having in hand a copy of their country's recently enacted legal access laws.
In some countries, small minority religions have taken notice of what the dominant religion has been obliged to do, and have been happy to proclaim that "In our belief system, we did these good things all along! This requires busy people to slow down and raise their eyes upward, which prepares them to venerate the holy images. We are in no hurry to throw away this useful old custom. Almost all practising Buddhists, at some time or other, are likely to think about 'disability' as a part of the natural change and decay of the human body to which they are already subject, or will soon be subject.
So there are clearly some practical reasons and grounds for examining and clarifying what has been taught and thought at the interface between Buddhism and disability, deafness or mental disorders. This is all the more so, since the evidence shown below suggests some sharp divisions and differences between the views of some urban, well-educated, 'modern' Buddhists and the much greater number of rural, less-educated but not necessarily less wise 'traditional' Buddhists. This bibliography and its annotation are very largely based on 'textual' representations of Buddhism and associated responses to disability, mental disorders or deafness , in two or three European languages , i.
Ideally, 'textual' Buddhism would give a good reflection both of the carefully chosen words and well-constructed thoughts of writers and artists through years, and of the thoughts and ideas of present and past Buddhists across the world, in their interface with disability, mental disorders and deafness. Yet there are inevitably many differences between text and thought, and between writing and being. There are also significant differences of thought, concept and discourse appearing in European-language translations, compared with thoughts and concepts in the ancient and modern languages of Asia.
Further, the very idea of an individual collecting a pile of 'Buddhist texts' and scholarly expositions or commentaries, and scraping through the pile for stuff 'relevant to disability', is an alien notion, seen against the actual practice of Buddhism in most times and places, where scrolls of 'text' were very scantily available, and the text they contained had "several lives" all fairly different from the uses to which a modern student might put them!
Fabio Rambelli, , p. The lengthy task of re-examining textual representations of disability in Buddhist sources certainly needs to be done by specialists in 20 or 30 major Asian languages from primary texts, without reference to the way it is being done in English. The roots of German have in many ways given more to English, so the ways in which thinking is structured are broadly familiar to anglophones even if the Germans persist in putting their verbs at the end ; while differences arise in, e.
The case of French is different, because although there is much French-derived vocabulary in sophisticated English, the French think differently. One does not really know what one has written in English, until a French intellectual tries to translate it into French in the way that he or she would think of it -- the depth of philosophical difference changes the available structures of thinking. Thus it is always refreshing to go over similar ground with either French or German authors. Some such re-examination of Buddhist primary sources must already be taking place in obscure academic journals - yet there are few public signals of such activity One of the necessary preliminary or parallel activities would be further development of substantial online dictionaries such as the multilingual Digital Dictionary of Buddhism by Charles MULLER and many learned collaborators see further detail in bibliography, section 2.
Disability-related terms occur quite incidentally, but a full-text search in English does find at least 30 disability terms, with more than examples of use in Buddhist texts, including a good range of terms now considered 'politically incorrect' or abusive in Western anglophone countries e. If at times this Introduction sounds rather defensive, the reader will have read the signals correctly!
A first defence is that what follows is freely admitted to be partial, incomplete, tentative, 'in progress', subject to correction, and offered in a spirit of goodwill. Up to now, there has not been any substantial annotated bibliography devoted to this field of knowledge, open online -- nor was any such a work found in European-language academic sources. If the present effort is subjected to critical scrutiny by scholars and thinkers who could probably have made a much better job of it, maybe improvements and corrections will be put in hand. Perhaps a specialist team may pool its resources and produce a much better job as a formal academic publication in the next five or ten years.
In the academic game, probably a majority of players are motivated to write books and journal articles advancing their own research and conclusions, and staking out some ground a little ahead of the broad research front, rather than mapping fields where the writing has been done by other people over centuries and millennia. Had I started this compilation intelligently, by drafting an Introduction, I would probably have stopped as the difficulties of the exercise began to dawn and enlarge themselves.
But the compilation did not take place in an orderly or sensible way. The enormity and perhaps the effrontery of the tasks only slowly became apparent. What drew me onward was the sheer fascination of successive and unexpected 'finds' in the vast translated literature of Asian Buddhism, where disability, deafness and 'mental' stuff came up either casually or deliberately, and possible patterns seemed to emerge, or to be contradicted. The process began years ago, after 12 years living and working in Pakistan.
Returning to UK , I began writing a phd thesis on social responses to disability in South Asian history, and later began to compile and annotate a bibliography on a similar topic for East Asia. One thing led to another, and eventually a large annotated bibliography on disability and deafness in the Middle East was added, and after several years an annotated bibliography on " disability and deafness in the context of religion, spirituality and belief, in Middle Eastern, South Asian and East Asian cultures and histories ", beside many articles hidden from public gaze in the obscurity of refereed academic journals.
In the Introduction to the 'context of religion' bibliog, I compared it to pulling up a bucket of water from the ocean, pouring some of the water over my feet, watching which way the water ran off, then claiming to have understood the ocean [! Apparently 'pouring water on one's feet and watching it run off' is an image sometimes used in Buddhist teaching; but they probably don't claim to understand even the bucket. After completing a survey of deaf people and sign language through years in Ottoman Turkey, and revising some comparative work on blind and sighted teachers in India and China, it seemed good in early to try to update the East Asia bibliography.
I had not touched it for several years, but had a pile of accumulated fresh material. A little Buddhist material in the earlier 'disability and religion' work could be switched over into the main East Asia materials; but then I realised that those items were few and the annotations quite weak. It seemed better to take a few months to search more carefully for thoughtful Buddhist material that addressed disability. There are people in web forums asking "what does Buddhism say about disability?
Or they might be plunged into confusion, on seeing the range of viewpoints. Arguably, 'deepening the confusion' is a necessary stage while moving toward enlightenment -- but sceptical students may decide that confusion is merely a result of teachers failing to resolve the contradictions in their own teaching! Fortunately, annotated bibliographies need not pretend to offer reasoned and coherent answers across a vast and complex field - they merely sketch some dimensions of a field, and indicate some of the major points that have been made and who has been publishing what.
They may invite people to take part in reading, discussing and maybe writing. Or singing, painting, whatever Many months passed, the number of listed items continued to rise, the annotations thickened up with cross-references, the haematologists periodically said they were pleased with my blood tests; and people whom I knew well, mostly adults aged 50 to 90, mysteriously grew several inches taller.
The cancerous junk in the blood can be pushed back for some time; or may be removed by stem cell transplants, with some risks. It's remarkably clever how the tiny cancer cells succeed in slipping past the defences, multiplying and crowding out the healthy cells, undermining the bones and blood, while one's skeleton starts to sag, crack and crumble, the immune system slowly gives up, major organs fail to function and eventually the body collapses. All bodies collapse, given time! Myeloma usually shortens the time, though the blood cancer specialists are getting quite clever at lengthening survival times.
Sober teachers of Buddhism advise students to gaze regularly at decrepitude and death. I'm not a Buddhist, but a personal study of cancer is an interesting way to focus on the transience of life. Yet the depths and complexities of historical Asian thinking around decay, death, rebirth, merit and demerit, disability and deafness, while fascinating to grapple with, are seldom if ever contemplated in modern western media.
If they do appear, they will usually be dismissed as 'pre-scientific' nonsense, or perhaps as merely a reflection of the dismal poverty in which the 'Asian masses' are believed to live measured in purely material terms. Another hazard to beware of is that, for every bloated generalisation about 'Buddhism', history, culture, 'the East', 'the West', there is a younger critical scholar waiting to sink her teeth into the balloon and bring it crashing to earth! Through four years, I lost 17 cm height nearly 7 inches , as bones have weakened and sagged downward; but the visual impression to me was that other adults were getting taller, which was quite strange!
As mentioned above, during the past years, urban populations representative of the world's major religions, faiths, philosophies of transcendence, meditational systems, have slowly begun adjusting to the emergence of new discourses of disability and deafness. Briefly with a little exaggeration the message from modern organisations of deaf or disabled people has been:. Of course, individually, people with disabilities have a very wide range of interpretation of the above ways of 'speaking up', and they exhibit the same vast range of human character, self-awareness, intelligence, humour, anger, fluency in articulating their thoughts, and capacity for self-deception, that the rest of 'non-disabled' or 'not-yet-disabled' humanity exhibits.
They cannot be pinned down and characterised as 'protesters', using slogans to 'claim their rights', as might appear above! Those above are the collective voices of membership organisations which claim to 'represent' disabled people - or people with particular categories of impairment - and who therefore engage in political action for change.
There are certainly many individuals with disabilities who care nothing about abstract 'rights'; they would prefer money in their hand or in their bank account; or a reasonably-paid job with a few adaptations so they can get into the office, factory, workshop or home computing system, and actually do the work. There might well be particular disabled people who would disagree with all 'political action' -- but who might, in their professional capacity of sociologist, or literary or legal researcher, mount a strong and well-informed critique of the ways in which religious discourse has been used to marginalise disabled people and associate them with 'social problems' or 'sinfulness'.
If these kinds of barriers remain untouched, the achievement of much-improved physical, legal and environmental 'access' might merely bring disabled people more quickly and shockingly up against the invisible barriers of indifference and disdain in the hearts and minds of their fellow-humans.
This is not an argument for stopping 'political protests' and demands for better access. It is an argument for concerned people to engage thoughtfully in the development of human societies across a very wide front , using many different resources and bringing benefits to the majority of the human populations -- and without carelessly destroying the habitat of other living creatures.
The more cautious approach is to suggest that "Some schools of Buddhism teach Some evidence of all these kinds does in fact appear in the material listed below, though it is of course far from exhaustive, it is unevenly spread between different categories and different countries, and is not listed under the above categories. This ad hoc classification of evidence is shown merely as one approach to getting to grips with evidence, if a larger and more systematic study were made.
The final item, d. Sometimes if no influence can be seen, it might be because there was and is no influence! In one item, the basic assumption may be that the translated words and teaching of the Buddha Gotama are being presented, as heard and faithfully transmitted by his earliest companions or audience, so that 'we' 21st century readers, scattered across the Internet world can read them and form some idea of what Gotama thought about disability, deafness, etc.
The next listed item may have a very different set of basic assumptions. For example, it might be a scholarly monograph in which it is assumed that the 'Buddhist text' we now read is the outcome of centuries of editing, commentating, retranslating and repackaging of Gotama's words, by people with various motivations. Among the motives might have been the survival of the 'Buddhist community' in a particular Asian country in an early century; and the interpretative lenses we use must differentiate between several different sorts of 'literal', 'metaphorical', 'allegorical', or 'mixed' meanings, while the sporadic use of 'disability'-related terms might have little or nothing to do with physical or sensory impairments, or with the impact of ill-designed city environments on people having such impairments.
The bibliography user is supposed to bounce around happily or at any rate, earnestly! The annotations may assist by giving some clues and indications of whether the user is standing on her feet, or on his head, or on an electronic cloud in some fourth dimension. A quarter century ago, the following ironic and minatory paragraph was written by Trevor Ling, a distinguished western scholar of Buddhism and the ancient and medieval civilisations in which it grew and later flourished:.
Ling Indian sociological perspectives on suffering. Ling's ironic incredulity at the 'confidence' of fleeting western academic tourists, and his sceptical gaze at the superficiality of their understanding at both the Arrival and the Departure gates, have entirely failed to stem the flood of western academics and aid agencies visiting Asian countries for 'rapid appraisal' and high-speed 'advisory report' on all aspects of Asian social and economic development, usually for a far shorter period than the "year or so" that Ling noticed.
Some visitors do read a little literature on their 'target' country, or at least consult Wikipedia and do a little googling, to learn something about the 'strange customs and beliefs' of those distant people to whom they hope to bring 'western' benefits and 'advice'. Their best course will be to visit the country concerned, and there respectfully ask well-informed people to tell them something about this topic. However, for these enquirers to begin to understand some of the background, and thereby begin to see how to formulate sensible questions , I have sketched a few ideas and suggested some materials that can be read.
Yet recently I realised that the web search results are far from satisfactory, whether in explaining Buddhist responses to disability in terms that make sense in the Buddhist conceptual world s , or in ways that make sense to the average educated westerner with a post- Judaeo-Christian background and occasional encounters with significantly different world views.
Google retrieves millions of snippets of data, but seldom presents coherent thinking or guides the user through complexity. Further, though Google still scans an astonishing amount of material, it is not consistent in what it shows up. The algorithms are often tweaked as Google engineers battle against commercial tricks to get particular sites into the first page of hits.
There are also other reasons why Google has been reallocating some results to appear in different places. The main Google site may ultimately carry 'everything' but Google Books and Google Scholar can be a much quicker route to discovering serious, evidence-based textual material on Buddhism and disability, at least in English. Both assumptions, while understandable, help to lose useful material.
Who can tell how the balance should be made, between different kinds of material? One of the hardest thing to know, when looking at evidence about disability and how disabled people spent their lives in earlier centuries, is whether the modest amount of available texts is giving a fair picture, or is heavily biased in one or more ways. The lives of the great mass of ordinary individuals and families across Asia were very seldom written about; still less, the lives of disabled people amongst them. They continue in to be hardly visible from a distance, and far from perspicuous even when viewed close up.
Things got recorded and preserved in texts that we can still read, for various reasons, e. Ordinary people, especially women or children, rarely figure in such texts, let alone being the authors of them. Yet the millions lived their lives, reproduced the human race, and experienced disabilities as they became old, or sometimes much earlier in life.
The main teachings and differences of the major schools of Buddhism are hardly made clear in the annotations to items listed below, and do not necessarily appear in the items themselves, which may be quite specialised; yet some of the differences are useful for understanding the points about disability, and the wide range of ways in which Buddhists may respond toward disability and disabled people.
Yet this bibliography is not the place to learn the basics of Buddhism if there is such a thing as 'the basics'. Summaries of major doctrines may be found in many modern books about Buddhism in its Asian heartlands, or in encyclopedia articles or serious websites. This is also the case if one compares the 'major doctrines' of other great religions or philosophies, and the everyday lives of three billion people having some connection with 'Christendom' or the 'House of Islam'.
The conceptual universe of Asian Buddhism can hardly be entered with a few hours of reading or skimming around online texts, or simply stating some 'doctrines' in English. Much the same could be said of any of the world's major religions or philosophies of transcendence - yet the 'Abrahamic' monotheisms have perhaps sufficient mutual common ground, that students of any one can hope to understand something about the conceptual world of the others without a substantial shift of perspective. It is doubtful whether the same can be said of Buddhism.
Attempts to summarise in modern English 'what Buddhism is all about' are very likely to leave the 'western' reader with a series of largely false impressions, because the summary is being read through the wrong set of lenses. Not merely new lenses are needed - a new pair of eyes would be more useful. And the eyes work better when they are open. It is probably too soon to tell whether these efforts can maintain sufficient links with Asian Buddhism to be recognised as being part of the same philosophy or belief system; or whether differences of underlying assumptions will generate too much pressure at the level of 'tectonic plates'.
Another century or two may be needed to gain a reliable perspective on these questions. Such ideas are perhaps not flatly rejected; they are more like old library books now accommodated in a remote store, from which the librarians promise to retrieve them in a day or two if someone puts in an order! However, belief in karma and rebirth apparently continues to be basic to much of 'mainstream' Asian Buddhism, as well as Hinduism, and not only among the less intellectual masses but among some thinkers having great depth and subtlety.
ZEUSCHNER below also discusses some ways in which early Ch'an masters bypassed complicated philosophical schemes by making a metaphorical interpretation of transmigration, leaving a "doctrine of karma which many Westerners can feel comfortable with". There is no single teaching authority, organisation or Supreme Court or Council that could provide the authoritative 'Buddhist response' to disability or anything else , nor is there any prospect of such a universally-recognised authority arising, to give such a response. Some individual Asian Buddhists have become international 'leaders', media celebrities and spokesmen, such as the 14th Dalai Lama, and the leading campaigner for 'Engaged Buddhism', Thich Nhat Hanh -- yet it appears from published discourses of those men, that they have hardly begun to hear or engage with the issues raised by the international Disability Movement.
Or perhaps they have begun to hear, but realise that apart from a few 'positive' anecdotes, the Buddhism in which they have a lifelong immersion is bound to conflict with some modern western 'demands', and this issue is nowhere near the top of all the urgent demands on them. The demand for 'Disability Rights', enforceable if necessary in courts of law to compel organisations and shopkeepers, architects, designers, journalists and politicians to change their everyday behaviour, work and language, is hardly a way of pursuing happiness; nor of discarding illusions of 'self', nor of perceiving the inevitability of material decay and the necessity for long-term control of one's mind to focus on realities in a spiritual world.
The possible benefits of disability rights campaigning have yet to find any clear-cut international Buddhist leader to adopt, re-frame or advocate them. Certainly, there are Buddhist leaders in many Asian countries who have powerful nation-wide influence among their own people, using their own national language. Some may achieve the power of identification, or of 'inter-being', with the marginalised, despised, disabled, outcast and unwanted, among their compatriots.
As yet, it is not easy to find any who, while embracing the poor and downtrodden, have also picked up the campaign for disability rights 'with teeth'. Some of the veterans of western campaigns, who saw positive laws passed in the 'Decade of Disabled Persons', , have now lived long enough to tell - mostly in private - a bitter story of how those laws have been, and continue to be, widely ignored, bypassed, rolled back, stepped around; or found 'unaffordable'.
Issues of balance may be felt most acutely at one or two points where views held by perhaps the great mass of traditional Asian Buddhists seem to be in conflict with views adopted by some 'modern' Buddhists who may wish to accommodate recent 'western' thinking, or may have reached a different position by their own reflection. Such points of conflict arise when some Buddhists articulate the view that disability experienced by a person in the present life is an outcome of action in an earlier life ; while other Buddhists may wish to finesse this belief in various ways, or simply deny or rebut it as a relic of earlier times, or ignore it as not being pertinent to what anyone should do in the present age.
Can such positions be counted as valid 'Buddhist teaching' merely because many uninstructed or poorly instructed Asian people assert that this is what they believe 'as Buddhists'? On the other hand, is authoritative but widely ignored teaching to be found only among an urban elite studying particular texts and interpreting them in a particular way?
In the present bibliography, should an equal number of entries be shown for each main position or viewpoints, or should the quantity reflect the prevalence or vigour with which the view is propagated? In fact, during months searching for, compiling, pondering and annotating materials, it was not so easy to find material in European languages that seemed to make significant statements about disability in Buddhist Asia.
However, an impression has slowly become stronger of moving toward a kind of 'saturation', i. Yet this impression might turn out to be merely another illusion. While compiling the materials below, efforts were made to find at least some views based within each of the major Asian countries where Buddhism has a significant modern or historical presence; and to continue picking up views and positions that add to the variety or extend the range and the subtlety, even though they might be far from common or representative; and also to favour textual evidence where there seemed to be more thoughtful scrutiny and scholarly care.
The latter qualifications are of particular importance since most of the source material has been through at least one, and often several, processes of translation. There are strong probabilities that some words on which an argument might be based could mean something significantly different in their original language and context, from what comes through in the European-language translation; and this could make a significant difference to the argument. Unfortunately, comparatively few readers have the patience to tease out all the finer points for themselves.
The strong human tendency is for people to skim through text , looking for things that bolster the position they have already adopted, rather than seeking the complexities and living with the uncertainties! This is another contested word or name, formulated by foreigners to describe hundreds of millions of people living in India and having a very wide range of philosophies, beliefs and disbeliefs; but it became more 'specific' for distinguishing the vast number who could not be classified as Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, or Jainas.
More recently the name has been taken up deliberately as the broad religious identity of a political majority. A few major texts of the early Hindu heritage are included below, such as the recent critical edition and translation of 'MANU', the Legal Code, Manava-Dharmasastra , formulated by Patrick Olivelle, since this probably contains much of the context and some of the legalistic thinking against which the Buddha Gotama and his followers argued and from which they departed; similarly, Olivelle's translation of 12 major Upanishads to modern English.
The Buddha Gotama reportedly contradicted notions which people commonly have, that they possess, or within them there exists, a 'self', a Self, ' Atman ', an unchanging essence, individual being, 'soul', vital breath, distinct from others and continuing from one rebirth to the next, an inextinguishable ongoing spark or flame within every human, each containing some unique and individual element. In , Robinson published the textured athletic lettering font Robbie Rocketpants , Airlock, Cargo Bay a great army stencil, with a negative letter option , Dogma a grungy Lombardic face , and the grungy blackletter typeface Flesh Wound.
MDMA is a halftone simulation texture face. Barbarian is an alphading typeface on the theme of swords. Camouflage is a textured typeface. Atheist is an outline typeface. Power is inspired by lettering on pwer buttons. Witching Hour is a halloween font. Dystopian Future is a grungy typeface. Olde Stencil is a stenciled blackletter typeface. Anonbats has scanbats and dingbats related to the famous hacker group Anonymous. Creature Feature is a slimy typeface. Ka Blamo is a comic book font. Anti Everything is a blood drip typeface. PCB is a printed circuit board font.
Dickensian Christmas is a decorative Christmas font. Typefaces from Squeal Piggy. Typefaces from Footy Scarf. Aka Anfa. FontStruct link. Behance link for Muhajir Oesman. Mark Conahan designed Shitface T, He created two free skull fonts, called Skullphabet 2 and Skullphabet 1. These were based on art created in by Noah Scalin , creative director and owner of Another Limited Rebellion, who during one year created one skull art piece per day.
About 30 nice freeware fonts grabbed from the net. Brought here by Elusive Graphics and Design. Harvey is the Californian designer at Chank's Store of the free "bj's Halloween Fontpak " 4 fonts, Apostrophic Laboratory [Fredrick M. One of the most dynamic foundries from until The name Apostrophe comes from a Frank Zappa song. It has produced well over original free fonts, in all formats type 1, truetype, and opentype, PC and Mac , and nearly all fonts have full character sets. Many have character sets for extended European languages and Cyrillic as well. It was for a few years the only active producer of multiple master fonts.
Download site at Typoasis. Original URL, now being reworked. Highlights: Miltown from the Matrix movie. Fluoxetine old typewriter. Desyrel handwriting, Dana Rice. PicaHoleMorse font. Ritalin has almost glyphs, and is a family designed for Latin, Greek, Turkish, eastern European, Cyrillic and Baltic. Carbolith Trips letters from cuneiforms. Textan with Rich Parks or Richard D. Parker; inspired by the Chinese Tangram. Poultrygeist horror comic font. Metrolox "Enemy of the State" font, with Karen Clemens; a Unicode font with glyphs for over 20 Latin-based languages and some math symbols.
Republika a font techno family; read about it here. Street a font family by Graham Meade. The dingbats Eyecicles and Texticles, both with Graham Meade. Komika , 50 comic book fonts designed with Vigilante. Labrit a great Fraktur font, with Graham Meade. Frigate a Roman-kana font by Melinda Windsor. Scriptina an unbelievable calligraphic font by Apostrophe, Freebooter Script an equally unbelievable calligraphic font by Graham Meade, Choda a display font like none you have seen before; Apostrophe and Meade, Endor with Meade, a Gothic font; The list of designers and their fonts: Apostrophe [dead link]: Day Roman , the first digitization of Fr.
Marjan Bozic and Apostrophe: Hard Talk. Steve Deffeyes : Loopy. Marley Diehl and Apostrophe: Diehl Deco. Fleisch and Apostrophe: Colwell, Hadley. Steve Graham: Hypnosis. Frank Guillemette and Apostrophe: Ankora. Jeri Ingalls and Apostrophe: Paxil. Neumat Ick and Apostrophe: Icklips, Powderfinger. Su Lucas and Apostrophe: Barbarello. Brigido Maderal and Apostrophe: Lab Bats. Evelyne Pichler : Sindrome. Evelyne Pichler and Apostrophe: Vienna. Phynette and Apostrophe: Independant.
Dana Rice and Apostrophe: Desyrel, Lilly. Jessica Slater : Wiggles. Jessica Slater and Apostrophe: McKloud. Melinda Windsor : Plastic, Frigate. Robby Woodard : Ashby Yol: Traceroute. Font Squirrel link. Abstract Fonts link. Arendx Studio [Asep Rendi]. Parisian designer of Nord Sud Boulenger , a squarish all caps typeface based on the tiled letters used in the subway in Paris on the Nord-Sud line now lines 12 and It is named after the Boulenger tile factory, also known as the Choisy-Le-Roi tile factory.
In , he designed the display typeface CMT and the free typeface Ouroboros, a font for alchemists, witches, heretics and outsiders. In , he designed the wavy typeface Brassia. Open Font Library link. Arslan is from Faisalabad, Pakistan and was born in Sean has beautiful Japanese calligraphic prints shodo style as well as fonts based on carefully researched historical typefaces. Very nice gothic and medieval style creations. He showcases great Arab, Japanese and Chinese calligraphy. Asep Rendi [Arendx Studio]. Gothic font archive. Has Dead History Emigre.
A font gothic archive. In , he designed the free chola graffiti-inspired typeface Mexican Pride. In , he designed the free graffiti font Mexaking and Ugly Boy. Behance link for Black Kraken. Behance link for Aspek. Astigmatic One Eye [Brian J. Bonislawsky b. Many are free, others are not. Fontsquirrel link. There are many techno and gothic fonts. Kill Me Craig is the first 26 death scene dingbat font scenes by Craig Dowsett.
- PDF Vintage Horror Comics: Adventures Into Darkness No. 6 Circa 1952 (Annotated & Illustrated)!
- The Man Who Knew Brecht;
- Music of the 1980s (American History Through Music).
- Search bar.
- The Twisted Deal.
- The PsiCATs 3- Tessa;
KittyPrint takes the LinusFace font concept to more realistic cat head dingbats. Krelesanta not free is a funky font inspired by the band Kreamy Electric Santa. The free ButtonButton is useful for making buttons. Lovesick AOE is a scrawly, lovelorn typeface, i's dotted with hearts. Senth AOR is a runic font. Charaille is one of the many dot matrix fonts. Cavalero is inspired by the logotype of the Chevy Cavalier. Bio at Bitstream. From the bio and various pieces of information, one is led to believe that Brian was born in Poland, and now lives in Miami, but that may be wrong.
In , he placed a free font at the Google Directory , Syncopate. Somewhat of a cross between Bodoni and Pixie, this font finds that it never truly takes itself seriously. Their first commercial typefaces, all jointly designed, are Luckiest Guy Pro a fat comic book font based on vintage s ads and Marcellus Pro a flared roman inscriptional typeface with both upper and lower case, originally published in by Astigmatic.
In , Brian J. Bonislawasky and Jim Lyles published the rugged octagonal mega typeface family Tradesman at Grype. Hugh Gordon. In , they published the letterpress emulation typeface Prison Pro, Pink Sangria 50s style movie font , Manic Tambourine, Motenacity a Martian cartoon font , the old typewriter font Office Memorandum Pro, and the Flintstone font Strongman.
View Astigmatic's typeface library. View the typefaces made by Brian Bonislawsky. Bantul, Indonesia-based designer of Kinley monoline script , Layla Script , Star Medina an Arabic simulation typeface , Zamalek a script typeface , Seggo Jagung a minimalist monoline sans , Jaguar squarish , Sinau a script typeface and Modaz an all caps brush typeface for horror applications.
Another Creative Fabrica link. Attak is a two-headed graphic design firm formed in by Peter Korsman b. It is based in 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands. Attak has some free and some commercial typefaces. Their fonts, ca. Notable products: AK simulates Cyrillic; Helix is a stencil face; Muntel and Concours are fat art deco typefaces; Practicum and Tabak are octagonal; Riot leaks blood; Sirca is based on arcs of circles; Streep is a multiline font.
I presume that Peter is the main font designer in the team, as he already made fonts as early as for Burodestruct see, e. Rutger Paulusse: AT Discipline Attype Studio [Fadli Ramadhan Iskandar]. Bogor, Indonesia-based designer, b. Abstractfonts link. Aka Extate. Aure Font Design [Aurora Isaac]. Typefaces from Aure Brash an outline font that speaks with the cheeky inuendo of a sassy parrot , Aure Nox semi-haunted; with modulated stems , Aure Teddy art nouveau style , Aure Declare a text typeface family accompanied by several sets of extraordinary and quite complete astrological symbols , Aure Sable also with astrological symbols , Aure Wye , Aure Jane.
Typefaces from Aure Zeritha. Aurora Isaac [Aure Font Design]. Studio in London. Awan Setiawan [Awan Studio]. Awan Studio [Awan Setiawan]. Indonesian designer b. Aydee b. Designer of the nicy scratchy font Psychotic Sparhelt ]. Bai Mellon [Sideshow]. Creator of the dripping paint graffiti font Real Graffiti Graphic designer and illustrator in Istanbul, who created the scary gothic font Crystallize free if you ask. Argentinian designer b. Matosinhos, Portugal-based designer of the smudged lipstick font Sherlock Holmes Wroclaw and before that, Warsaw , Poland-based designer of the vampire or snake tongue script font Dianthus Barlov [Joseph Morris].
American designer of the bones font Headhunter Two Indonesian designer of the Halloween typeface Jarian Typefaces from The Breaks monoline script , Aswatama rounded monoline script. Typefaces from Bdstrd Floid a package of s retro fonts. Medium-size gothic font archive. Ben Balvanz [Fontalicious]. He created a number of typefaces in that are related to comic books and illustrations.
These include Bones, Creepin Halloween font , Bruiser, and Foundry a spurred heavy octagonal typeface. French designer known as Zorg After a stint in Montpellier, he settled in Cannes. His type creations include Dripping Alphabet Besttypeco [Alexander Tiunov]. Perm, Russia-based designer b. Lecter Johnson Betterfear.
Graham Ingels - WikiVisually
His web site has a threatening nazi sort of look, but the fonts are were free. Pauli, Hamburg, and is also known on MyFonts, where some of its fonts can be bought, as Doubletwo Studios. Another Behance link. Old URL. Another Dafont link Yet another Behance link. And a final Behance link. American designer of these typefaces in Barebones, Lovely blackboard board style , Terror Time scary, hand-crafted. Bihidryed -- BT's font design page [Brandon Thomas]. Bihidryed is a small truetype mainly grunge font archive. Brandon lives in Indianapolis.
Brazilian graphic designer and prolific creator of free typefaces, which often combine calligraphy, retro signage, and grunge. Panhead grunge Western face. London, UK-based designer of the nightmarish typeface Specter See also here and here. RI, Comic Lettering is an alternate URL, where you can also order logo designs, custom fonts, and custom lettering.
Direct access. View the Blambot typeface liubrary. BLKBK is a graphic design and visual communications studio in Winnipeg, Canada, specializing in type, lettering, brand identity, art direction, and design for print and web. These are mostly signage and brush script typefaces. Bandung, Indonesia-based designer of these hand-drawn typefaces in Basqi, Skinny, Lugosi, Karloff a horror font , Elora. Fonts from Vlad tepes II creepy. Fonts from Sarcophagus. Fonts from Baris Cerin a bastardized Garamond caps face. Fonts from Precious connected formal script.
Open Font Library link for Tyler Schnitzlein. Bonez Designz [Fiona Clarke]. She created the angular typeface Do You Like My Font Andy , Cubee , very fat and cubic , Boutique , grunge , Anorexia , a shrieky scribbled face , Time to Scribble , sketched face. Typefaces from Mary art deco , Bernadette. Typefaces from Farbe dry brush script , Nineteen43 high contrast sans , Maeve art deco influenced by the didone style. Typefaces from Night Braille. In , he added BU Gothic Hybrid a hybrid of grunge calligraphy and blackletter. BrainEaters is Brad O.
Link at FontDiner. Another Fontspace link. Creative market link. Brandon Thomas [Bihidryed -- BT's font design page]. Tolyatti, Samara Oblast, Russia-based designer of Maker , a creepy hand-crafted typeface. His main products are icons, however. Brian Crick. Brian Crick b.
- PDF Vintage Horror Comics: Adventures Into Darkness No. 6 Circa 1952 (Annotated & Illustrated).
- Chpt. 15 - Crayons and Chocolate Chip Cookies and Chpt. 16 - Ghosts (The Warper ).
- The Seattle Review of Books;
- Plant Biochemistry!
Jamestown, NY, is working on a very original font, Positronic Effigy. His Ironweaver is the thinnest of the thin almost gothic or bewitched beauties. Check also Oberto Positronic Toaster is a very nice modern interpretation of the French upright scripts of the nineteenth century. MyFonts link. Brian J. Bonislawsky [Astigmatic One Eye]. Mexico City-based designer of the curly vampire font Lirixa Annotations: Accumulation: a hacker font. Amadeus : music-themed letters. Boingo : a beautiful curly script.
Griffin: bewitched letters. Moteefe: an art deco typeface modeled after Marcia Loeb's alphabet. Riesling : an ornamental hairline display face. Windsong : calligraphic script. Palmira, Colombia-based designer of the horror movie font The Cramps Britton Walters [Nerfect Type Laboratories]. Las Vegas, Nevada-based designer b. She also made the Exocet-lookalike HIM Small archive specializing in gothic fonts and dingbats. Designer of BlackAdderII , Designer of Black Adder II. During his studies in Barueri, Brazil, illustrator Bruno Lhaes designed the wonderful eerie Mugler typeface Hungarian foundry with commercial and free fonts, est.
On Deviantart, they claim to be from Rwanda. They specialize in grunge type--some of the fonts are quite gorgeous indeed. Has a fontmaking service. Commercial: Der Erlkoenig , Otranto , Schkorycza , Dajcsise , Engelfeuer , Gomulka , Haniltom Gothic , Perfuct , a great irregular printed typeface , Osiris Records , grunge , Thelema , medieval hand. Burghal Design [Kate Peters]. California, She describes herself as a former punk rock photographer, model, photo assistant and Jesus of the Week, who began designing fonts in as an alternative, drug-free therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder.
Jay Debard's gothic font archive. Mac only. BW 90 [Radovan Cernak]. Radovan Cernak BW90 is a Slovakian graphic designer. Graphic designer in Toronto who created the horror typeface Krumm and the brush typeface Oblina They are named after characters from Nickelodeon's Ahh Real Monsters. Canada Type [Rebecca Alaccari]. Foundry in Canada, est. Interview with Rebecca. MyFonts page. Middleton's Wave design for the Ludlow foundry, circa Weber foundry.
Patrick Griffin made Leather , after Imre Reiner's blackletter face , Secret Scrypt , Skullbats , Slang , a blood scratch face , Bluebeard , Expo , an octagonal family , and Dancebats Simone Wilkie designed Boyscout after the handwriting of her son. Rebecca also made Steiner Special , a revival of Swing, a film type by Peter Steiner, , Genesis , a digitization and extension of Grayda, a calligraphic script of Frank H.
Sniffin's Raleigh Cursive , ATF , Orotund , after the s typeface Eight Ball; this was extended again in in her art nouveau typeface Huckleberry , which is a revival of the typeface of Gustav Jaeger called Mark Twain , Pendulum , a fantastic flowing script based on Nebiolo's Americana, , Jojo , a flower child typeface after Spring, by Bernard Jacquet , Mascara , Gala , after Neon , Giulio da Milano at Nebiolo and Bella Donna , after a script made by Alessandro Butti in , called Rondine.
A later document states that it is based on work by British artist Rachel Yallop from , Evolver , a 4-style futuristic family , Ambassador Script , an Alaccari-Griffin revival of the angle-reduced calligraphic script Juliet by Nebiolo, In , Philip Bouwsma joined Canada Type, and designed a great calligraphic blackletter-inspired family, Torquemada. He designed many other typefaces for Canada Type in subsequent years. VIP , Rebeca Alaccari is a humanist sans serif uppercase and figures combined with a freshly redrawn revival of the classic VGC Constanze initials originally designed by Harry Brodjian in , and even further back, the Constanze Initials by Joachim Romann , Stempel.
Sympathique , Alaccari is an ultra-thin and ultra-tall typeface in the mold of Bernhard Fashion and other era poster or film typefaces they say that it is rooted in the film typefaces Hairstreak and Mossman. Filmotype Giant , a condensed sans and its italic counterpart, Filmotype Escort were bth co-designed with Patrick Griffin. Catalog of its typefaces.
Bandung, Indonesia-based type designer. Typefaces from Ineffable regular and grunge , Saqanone, Salmonberry, Huckleberries, Mongli a sharp-edged sans , Retros inline , Andrade brush style , Amecas squarish , Queenata signage script , Ranania script , Paradise calligraphic , Valery, The Mastiff, Little Edelweiss curly informal typeface , Loverstruck, Calamandria, Pulsate stencil , Peanut, Sedalia brush script , Delaboean, Rhapsody blackletter , Chiqarine connected script , Berretti a Broadway style art deco typeface , Cupello Sons a geometric serif , Quella brush script , Hello Alpha, Historia, Desmosedici.
In , during her studies in Bandung, Indonesia, Olivia Theresa created the frilly ornamental caps typeface Sambasa , which was designed on a Georgia skeleton. Behance link for Olivia Theresa. Creative Market link for Heroglyphs. Tenebrae is a spooky spurred display typeface.
Tenebrae is inspired by the Giallo films of the 70s and other cult cinema film posters. It can be bought at Ten Dollar Fonts. Spanish designer of Codex Gigas , a free grungy semi-vampire font that can be found at Dafont. He also created Evil Bible Bauru, Brazil-based designer of the hand-crafted vampire script typeface Surrada Dutch cofounder b. She specializes in fun fonts for children.
The fonts were created ca.
comics research bibliography: D - K
His life's motto: I like to draw letters, take photographs, and drink whiskey American designer b. American designer of Memory of War , a paint drip font. Born in Edmonton in , Chank works out of the north-east corner of Minneapolis. Chank Diesel is a famous and prolific designer, type designer, busy-body and mentor. His Chank Foundry in Minnesota was started in Free fonts sub-page. Anderson, b. Edmonton, , elsewhere. Bio by Susan Froyd. See also here or here or here or here. Handwriting font service for 95USD. Piece on Chank in the MinnPost. Chank became a popular and colorful figure who said this about himself : I like to drink a lot, and would like to think I'm known for it.
Several of my fonts were inspired by booze, and I like to encourage other people to drink more, too. My best font is called Liquorstore. A partial list of his typefaces: proofmoonshineremix. O: Omnivore, Oooopsie this font is just Helvetica with some circles dropped on top of it. The Helvetica trademark and Adobe copyright notices are still in the font! Q: Quimby Gubernatorial , Quimby Mayoral Puff Company. W: Woodrow , Wordy Diva. Y: Yearling , Yellabelly. Z: ZsaZsa Galore. Interview by MyFonts in View Chank Diesel's typefaces. His type designs: Accelerator.
Ballet Mechanique A custom-designed unicase font for musician Jeroen Borrenbergs, aka Ballet Mechanique.
Corporaet A 5-style humanistic sans intended for corporate branding. Cucaracha , Volcano Type. It includes Cucaracha Icons. Encrypted Wallpaper is a playful squarish typeface for creating textual wallpapers and decorations. Free at MyFonts. Insider A custom sans face done for Insider Consulting in Duesseldorf, German. It became retail in , and is sold as a warm grotesque family. Its bright side is a versatile corporate font with an unexpected twist.
Its dark side is awakened by creepy OpenType features, ligatures, swashes, and alternate glyphs, making it mutate into the evil Mr. Kris A vampire script or haunted house typeface co-designed with Corrie Smetsers. Maastricht Sport. Based on Insider. A highly personal script font, custom made from the handwriting of Maastricht-based film producer Jean-Paul Toonen, dating back to His handwriting is very dynamic, artistic and a tasteful blend between roman and italic style. A hand lettered logo font for the electric Meijs Motorman moped. This typeface was commissioned by design agency Stoere Binken Design.
In , the octagonal typeface Nantua was offered for free download at Dafont. Nordic Narrow is a clean, stylistic font with a Scandinavian touch. For an early development of the Nordic series, see Nordic A , sans, sold through Fountain. Nordic Narrow Pro was published in Plan Reethi Rah A great text typeface for editorial use, named after a resort on The Maldives. Savant A free informal face. ShellShock A military stencil typeface. An educational typeface commissioned by Noordhoff Publishers.
SidB stands for Schrijven in de Basisschool writing in elementary school and is an independent method to teach kids elementary school writing. Beaser: Yet you do hear of the fact that an awful lot of delinquency comes from homes that are broken. You hear of drunkenness in those same homes. Do you not think those children who read those comics identify themselves with the poor home situation, with maybe the drunken father or mother who is going out, and identify themselves and see themselves portrayed there?
They always associate themselves with the one who is doing the putting upon. The Chairman: You do test them out on children, do you? Senator Hennings: As we understood from what we heard of that story, the little girl is not being put upon there, is she? She is triumphant apparently, that insofar as we heard 23 the relation of the story this morning. Gaines: If I may explain, the reader does not know that until the last panel, which is one of the things we try to do in our stories, is have an O.
Henry ending for each story. Senator Hennings: Now, in that one, what would be your judgment or conclusion as to the identification of the reader with that little girl who has, to use the phrase, framed her mother and shot her father? Senator Hennings: That is right.
You cannot do that. Gaines: You will see that a child leads a miserable life in the six or seven pages. Senator Hennings: As a result of murder and perjury, she emerges a: triumphant. Hannoch: Is that the O. Henry finish? So the O. Gaines: No one knows she did it until the last panel. Hannoch: You think it does them a lot of good to read these things? The Chairman: What would be your procedure to test the story out on a child or children?
Gaines: I give them a story to read and I ask them if they enjoyed it, and if they guessed the ending. The Chairman: What children do you use to make the tests with? Gaines: Friends, relatives. Senator Hennings: Do you have any children of your own, Mr. Gaines: No, sir. Senator Hennings: Do you use any of the children of your own family, any nieces, nephews? Gaines: My family has no children, but if they had, I would use them.
The Chairman: You do test them out on children of your friends, do you? You are not trying to test the effect on the child, you are trying to test the readability and whether it would sell? Gaines: Certainly. Beaser: That is a different kind of test than the possible effect on the child. Then you have not conducted any tests as to the effects of these upon children.
Beaser: Were you here this morning when Dr. Gaines: I was. Gaines: I heard it. Beaser: You disagree with it? Gaines: I disagree with it. And it would just end up 3 big melee of pitting experts against experts. Beaser: Let me get the limits as far as what you put i into your magazine. Is the sole test of what you would put 1 your magazine whether it sells?
Is there any limit you :an think of that you would not put in a magazine because you thought a child should not see or read about it? My only limits are bounds of good taste, what I consider good taste. Beaser: Then you think a child cannot in any way, shape, or manner, be hurt by anything that a child reads or sees? Beaser: There would be no limit actually to what you put in the magazines? Gaines: Only within the bounds of good taste. Beaser: Your own good taste and salability? Do you think that is in good taste?
Gaines: A little. Senator Kefauver: Here is blood o: adults are shocked by that. The Chairman: Here is another I want to show him. Senator Kefauver: This is the July one. It seems to be a man with a woman in a boat and he is choking her to death here with a crowbar. Is that in good taste? Gaines: I think so. Hannoch: How could it be worse? Senator Hennings: Mr. I believe that he has given us about the sum and substance of his philosophy, but I would is holding n drip- a little further :o be bloody.
I think most 24 like to ask you one question, sir. The Chairman: You may proceed. Gaines: Yes, sir. Senator Hennings: To the readers of these publications. You do not mean to disassociate the profit motive entirely, do Mr. Gaines: Certainly not. Senator Hennings: Without asking you to delineate as between the two, we might say there is a combination of both, is there not? Gaines: No question about it. Senator Hennings: Is there anything else you would like to say to us with respect to your business and the matters that we are inquiring into here?
Senator Kefauver: I would like to ask one or two questions. The Chairman: You may proceed, Senator. Senator Kefauver: Mr. Gaines, I had heard that your father really did not have horror and crime comics. When he had the business he printed things that were really funny, and stories of the Bible, but you are the one that started out this crime and horror busi- t start crime; I Mr, Gaines: I did started horror.
Senator Kefauver: Who started crime? This is the May edition of Horror. Gaines: I started what we call our New Trend magazines in Senator Kefauver: How many of these things do you sell a month, Mr. Gaines: It varies. We have an advertising guarantee of 1. How do you distribute these, Mr. Gaines: I have a national distributor.
There are roughly ten individual national distributors which handle roughly half of the magazines. The other half is handled by American News. The one of the ten that I have is Leader News Company. Senator Kefauver: That is a distributor. Then do they sell to ers the wholesaler may be handling, are taken in a package to the retailer and left there and he is supposed to put them on this stand and sell them? Senator Kefauver: And if he does not sell them, or does not display them, then he is liable to get another retailer?
Gaines: No, we cover every retailer as far as I know. You would like them to be sold. Gaines: I would prefer it. Senator Kefauver: I notice in this edition of May 14, the one in which you have the greasy Mexican, the first page has apparently two shootings going on at the same time here, then on the next page is an advertisement for young people to send a dollar in and get the Panic for the next eight issues. Is that not right? That is you? Do you think that is all right? Gaines: This is advertisement for one of my lampoon magazines. We make fun of n good taste?
Senator Kefauver: The wholesalers then pass it out to the retailers, the drug-stores and newsstands; is that right? Senator Kefauver: They are all sold on a consignment basis? Gaines: They are all returnable. Gaines: This is things. The Chairman: You think that is : Mr. Senator Kefauver: I have looked through these stories.
Every one of them seems to end with murder, practically. I have looked through this one where they have the greasy Mexican and the Puerto Rican business. Gaines has said. The Chairman: Mr. Gaines, you have no objection to having this made a part of our permanent files, have you? The Chairman: Then, without objection, it will be so ordered. Let it be Exhibit No. Senator Kefauver: Is Mr. Gaines a member of the associa- 25 tion that we talked about here this morning? Gaines: No longer. I was a member for about two or three years and 1 resigned about two or three years ago.
Senator Kefauver: How did you happen to resign, Mr. Gaines: Principally for financial reasons. At that time, also, about ten percent of the publishers were represented. I was a charter member of the association. I stuck with it for two or three years. Schultz, who was here, not liking the kind of things you were publishing? I was on the board of directors later on, but not at first.
The Chairman: Did you think that publishing a magazine like this for example would still be within the code? Senator Kefauver: You admit none of this would come within that code? Gaines: Certain portions of the code I have retained. Certain portions of the code I have not retained. Senator Kefauver: The code that you have here, none of your stories would come in that code. You could not print any of these if you compiled with the full code we read here this morning. Gaines: I would have to study the story and study the code to answer that.
Senator Kefauver: How much is your monthly income from all your corporations with this thing, Mr. Gaines: You mean by that my salary? Senator Kefauver: No. How much do you take in a month from your publications? Senator Kefauver: What is your best estimate annually? Gaines: A million and a half guaranteed sale.
We print about two, two and a half million. Senator Kefauver: How much net do you make a month out of it, that is, the corporations? Senator Kefauver: Do you have several corporations, Mr. Senator Kefauver: How many corporations do you have? Gaines: I have five. Senator Kefauver: Why do you have five corporations?
I inherited stock in five corporations which were formed by my father before his death. In those days he started a corporation, I believe, for every magazine. I have not adhered to that. Senator Kefauver: Do you not think the trouble might have been if one magazine got in trouble that corporation would not adversely affect the others? Gaines: Oh, hardly. Senator Kefauver: You did get one magazine banned by the attorney general of Massachusetts, did you not? Gaines: He thereafter, I understand, said—he never said he would prosecute.
Senator Kefauver: That is the word you got, though, that he was going to prosecute you? Senator Kefauver: When was that? Gaines: Just before Christmas. Senator Kefauver: Which magazine was that? Gaines: That was for Panic No. Senator Kefauver: Just one other question. There is some association that goes over these things. Do you make any contribution to the memberships of any associations? Gaines: No. Senator Kefauver: Any committee that supervises the industry? There is no such committee or organization aside from the Association of Comic Magazine Publishers.
Senator Kefauver: You said you had a guaranteed sale of a million and a half per month. Gaines: We guarantee the advertisers that much. Gaines: I have a very definite interest. Senator Kefauver: Thank you, Mr. Hannoch: Could I ask one or two questions? Hannoch: What is this organization that you maintain called the Fan-Addict Club for 25c a member? Gaines: Simply a comic fan club, [see house ad, left] Mr. Hannoch: You advertise the children should join the club? Hannoch: What do they do? Do they pay dues?
The last Bulletin was principally made up of names and addresses of members who bad back issues they wanted to trade with other members. Hannoch: Did anybody buy that list from you and use it? Gaines: No, sir; I have never sold it. Gaines: Yes, sir; I wrote it. Hannoch: How has it been distributed? It is going to be the inside front cover ad on five of my comic magazines which are forthcoming. Hannoch: And it is going to be an advertisement? Gaines: Not an advertisement.
It is an editorial. Hannoch: Do other magazines have copies of this to be used for the same purpose? Hannoch: You believe the things that you say in this ad that you wrote? Hannoch: That anybody who is anxious to destroy comics are Communists? Hannoch: The group most anxious to destroy comics are the Communists? Gaines: True, but not anybody, just the group most anx- The Chairman: Are there any other questions? Hannoch: No. Beaser: I have some questions. Beaser: Just to settle the point which came up before, Mr. Gaines, who is it that gets the idea for this, for one of your stories—you, your editor, the artist, the writer?
Where does it come from? Gaines: Principally from my editors and myself. Beaser: Not from the artists? Beaser: He just does what he is told? Gaines: He just follows the story and illustrates it. Beaser: He is told what to do and how to illustrate it? Gaines: No, our artists are superior artists. Beaser: He has to be told what it is?
Gaines: It is lettered in before he draws it. Beaser: He knows the story pretty much, so he knows wbat he can fit in? Beaser: You said that you had a circulation of five million Bible story books? Beaser: How many years is this? Gaines: Twelve years, since Beaser: In other words, in little over three and a half months you sell more of your crime and horror than you sell of the Bible stories? Gaines: Quite a bit Mr. Beaser: They seem to go better? The crime and horror books are 10c books. There is a difference. Beaser: No further questions, Mr. The Chairman: Thank you very much, Mr.
Gaines: Thank you, sir. Direction comics were routinely being returned in unopened bundles: the retailers and distributors were not putting the comics on the stands. Comics that don't get on the stands are comics that don't sell. It was this, more than anything else, that forced Bill Gaines to abandon his comic book line: BC was hemorrhaging red ink.
A Statement by William M. Reader enthusiasm was reflected in high sales. I have decided now to discontinue ah horror and crime comics. This decision will be put into immediate effect. In recent months there has been much clamor against horror and crime comics based on a premise that horror and crime comics stimulate juvenile delinquency, a premise that has never been proved, and which in fact has been refuted by prominent psychiatrists and other experts.
In many cities wholesalers and dealers are reluctant to distribute or display horror and crime comics. This has meant reduced sales. And that has meant reduced printing orders. EC has always been the leader in percentage of sales. Our comics have been and still are the highest selling percentage wise in independent distribution.
Although print orders have been cut, our line is still a profitable one and our horror and crime comics are still making money. Few other comic publishers can make that statement today. And so once again we are taking the lead, this time in discontinuing crime and horror. We are doing it not for business reasons so much as because this seems to be what the American parents want-and the American parents should be served. If this happens, our own financial sacrifice in taking this step will be justified by the renewed good public feelings toward comics.
Last spring, I wrote a letter. I wrote it against the advice of many individual publishers. I called a meeting to form a new comic publishers association. We may get our fingers burned and our toes stepped on. Be that as it may, it seems to me that someone has to take the initiative Thirteen at the second. It is probably ironic, but we are not now members.
I hope at some time in the future to become a member, but EC will do this only when convinced of the sincerity of the association. I have always been honest and forthright in what I do, and I will not participate in a group action if it is to be only a smoke screen to deceive the public. I am dropping my horror and crime comics lines. I have on my desk a number of horror comics published by other publishers but with new titles and deceptive covers. This is bad faith, and I will have no part of it. I have hope for the new association, but if EC is to join, it must indicate its sincerity of purpose by writing a code that will forbid crime and horror comics.
This it has not done and apparently does not plan to do—and so, for the time being, we can not join. In other words, if comic publishers are to police their own industry, we must be, like Caesar's wife, above suspicion. Despite this getting off on the wrong foot, I am glad that such an association has been formed. And I hope it will finally decide to do a completely honest job. This action on our part is costly. It involves the loss of a large amount of revenue on the horror and crime magazines, and in addition, a gamble with upwards of a quarter of a million dollars in testing the new line.
Cover by Cameron, Simon. The book contained pages. Wertheim , illustrations by Don Cameron and S. Wertheim , art by Don Cameron and S. Note: scripts by Montgomery Mulford with revisions by Edward L. Wertheim, art by Don Cameron and S. Wertheim Many printings made. Sones, art work by Rolland Livingstone.
Allen Simon, and S. Note: Revised and edited by Dr. Sones , art work by. Sones and Wm. PictureSJtgiiesfro 3 ictiJb Stones from.. Animal Fables 3. Dandy S3. Land of the Lost SB. International 3, Tiny Tat m. Dandy 4. Land of the Lost 7, Animal Fables 6. Edited by Ivan Klapper. Fat S- Slot 2, Dandy 4. Note: this book is considered rare Overstreet says perhaps 20 or so copies exist.
Listing follows. Fox 7. Gaines, editor C,unfighter continued as The Hount ofFeor with Listing begins on page Note: the first EC title to break away from M. The Killer in the Dark! Gaines, editor Saddle Romances continued as Weird Science with International 3, Dandy 3. It got them five bucks and saved me five bucks. We tried it for a while, bul it was a little weak so we gave it up. Note invitation for letters. See page Gaines, editor issues Pre-Trend section continues on page Shelly Moldoff: Well, M.
I started with the filler pages in much the same way I did with Vincent Sullivan up at National Periodicals. My first strip with Mayer was a feature called Cliff Cornwall, and I started working and I just stayed there. Then they came out with the Flash, and Green Lantern, and Hawkman, and I started doing covers for them, and I was doing the Hawkman regularly.
And I stayed there until when I went into the service. I got along very well with M. Gaines, and when Hawkman first came out it was done by another artist; after the second or third story, M. And I want you to do it in any style you want. It was quite different than the other art in the magazines, and Max Gaines was always after me to work faster. Then of course All Star came along, and so there was just constant work, but just not enough time to dedicate to a quarterly.
Now in the case of the Flash and Green Lantern, there were always several artists working on it, and one could do the quarterly, one could do the magazine.
See a Problem?
Moldoff: Yes, I was. Moldoff: Well, it was a shock, you know, because he was quite a big man in the industry. I mean, All- American and National Periodicals had the biggest features out. I always felt that he was a very talented man, that he knew the field, and he had definite ideas. He was instrumental in bringing in Wander Woman, and he knew what he wanted.
I did a lot of special features for him, special jobs. Now, after the books went up to National Periodicals, M. Gaines called me up and told me to come back, and I did, and I worked on quite a few things with him [for the new EC line], one of them being Mo on Girl and the Prince. Incidentally, I wanted the character of Moon Girl to be as real and exotic as possible, so I modeled her after the actress Merle Oberon, remember her? She had a kind of Asian quality to her; I look at Moon Girl now and she has a striking face, much more different than the other characters.
W I f cfntxatlucirui MoonGiri That started off, and it was pretty good. But what happened was— comic books run in very strong cycles, particularly at that time, and when there was a bad cycle sales were way off, and the editors and their publishers would scramble to see what they could find that would sell. Now, when Max Gaines was killed, Bill Gaines took over. I had met Bill from time to time; he was in college at the time when I met him. And I went down to see Dave Alterbaum, he showed me the contract, I signed it, and that was it.
Tales from the Crypt, et cetera, his titles. Goines's editor- in-chief] and Sheldan Maldaff in a mock fist fight. The twa men loter hod o reol-life falling out. It does not protect you, it was written for their protection, not yours. And then they took the stories and split them up and put them in different magazines, and that was the end of it. I never saw Bill Gaines again after that time when I walked out of his office.
He certainly had a knack for picking good talent, as far as writers and artists. So he really dove into the comic book business, and the horror books gave him a big start. And as I say, I never had any contact with him again, and it was just one of those things. Johnny Craig drew a story and a cover.
I did stories. I have it all written down, I have records of everything; I kept it, the dates it was done and everything. Now, This Magazine is Haunted, that title, after horror came out with EC, I sold that title to Fawcett Publications, and they printed the magazine for about twelve or thirteen issues until they went out of business, and then they sold it to Charlton Press. But I did the covers and the lead story in those first dozen magazines. Fawcett became my prime source of work. GG: Do you remember who wrote the Moon Girl stories? GG: How closely did you work with Gardner Fox on the story ideas?
But I must say that mainly, the editor and the writer come up with the story lines. They spend the time together, they work out the story. In those days, very few artists did their own writing. He was also his own publisher [chuckles]. Usually you just did the artwork, and they paid so little for it, the key was to see how many pages you could do to earn a living. And the same with the writers.
GG: Slow and steady did not win the race. It was a thing where personally, you wanted to do the best you could, and as much as you could, because the pay scale was very, very low. But Gardner Fox was a very prolific writer; he was excellent, he could turn out the job. GG: Do you remember who wrote the text stories in Moon Girl, the one or two- page fillers? Moldoff: I imagine Gardner Fox. You know, Moon Girl ond the Prince started out pretty good, but then it was another victim of sales.
Sales were bad all over for everything. So what they did was, they changed it into Moon Girl Fights Crime; they made it more of a crime story, like they did with many others, in effort to try to keep sales up.